Stories
Title
“If you don’t keep quiet, we’ll push you off here and leave you here.”
| Oral History
Theme: 1862
Topics: Aftermath of War, Dakota Exile/Diaspora, Punitive Expeditions
Keywords: Exile, Diaspora
They wanted to make sure that the Indians behaved
Barbara Anderson | Oral History
Theme: Shared History
Topics: Dakota and Settler Relationships, Reservations, Boarding Schools
Keywords: Reservations, Boarding School, Drinking
I want to be an example of what they had to endure.
Barbara Anderson | Oral History
Theme: Growing Up
Topics: Growing Up, Boarding Schools, Relatives
Keywords: Consequences, Perceptions, Relatives
The more history that’s shared about what happened, the better
Barbara Anderson | Oral History
Theme: 1862
Topics: Ways of Commemorating, Education
Keywords: History, Savage
The main goal was to rob us of our spirit
Barbara Anderson | Oral History
Theme: 1862
Topics: Aftermath of 1862, Fort Snelling, Resilience
Keywords: Fort Snelling, Humor
How can you feel good about yourself when you’re restricted?
Barbara Anderson | Oral History
Theme: Life Today
Topics: Identity
Keywords: Effects of Discrimination, Racism, Shame, Endurance
I want to be that person that changes.
Barbara Anderson | Oral History
Theme: Culture and Values
Topics: Dakota Culture and Values, Dakota Life Today
Keywords: Spiritual Leaders, How to Treat People
Chief Red Iron
Barbara Anderson | Oral History
Theme: 1862
Topics: Family in 1862, Factions
Keywords: Red Iron (Ma-za-sa), Lac qui Parle, Chief
Why don't you guys just forget about it
Judith Anywaush | Oral History
Theme: 1862
Topics: Ways of Commemorating, Commemorative March
Keywords: Discrimination, Police, Fort Snelling, March
They tried to keep me in school.
Judith Anywaush | Oral History
Theme: Growing Up
Topics: Growing Up, Education, Poverty, Dakota Language
Keywords: Education, Poverty, Projects, Language, School
“If you just give me a hand up, I know that I can make it.”
Judith Anywaush | Oral History
Theme: 1862
Topics: Aftermath of 1862, Fort Snelling, Family in 1862, Crow Creek, Punitive Expeditions, Abraham Lincoln, Mankato Hangings
Keywords: Fort Snelling, Expendable, Wechankpeotowe (Many Stars Woman), Crow Creek, Soup, Bishop Whipple, Steamboat, Military, Soldiers, Survival
Do those people really know that they can stay there; they don’t have to come back.
Judith Anywaush | Oral History
Theme: Life Today
Topics: Dakota Life Today, Jobs, Inter-Tribal Relationships, Repatriation
Keywords: Jobs, Enrollment, Repatriation
“Please give them help. Please give them the money we said we were going to give them.”
Lisa Besemer | Oral History
Theme: 1862
Topics: Causes of War, Perspectives on 1862
Keywords: Brown County Historical Society, Letter, Henle
Did people really trust themselves to come back here again?
Lisa Besemer | Oral History
Theme: 1862
Topics: Aftermath of 1862
Keywords: Depredation Claims, Compensation, Leaving, Haag
It’s only as good as the paper you write them on.
Lisa Besemer | Oral History
Theme: Shared History
Topics: Treaties
Keywords: Treaty
It happened right here!
Lisa Besemer | Oral History
Theme: 1862
Topics: Family in 1862
Keywords: Highway 29, Haberly, Haag, Henle
Had the tables been turned?
Robert Beussman | Oral History
Theme: 1862
Topics: Aftermath of 1862, Forced Marches
Keywords: Marches, Anger
We're people just like they are
Robert Beussman | Oral History
Theme: Shared History
Topics: Immigration, Persecution
Keywords: Germans, Immigration, Misperception
Who is right and who is wrong?
Robert Beussman | Oral History
Theme: 1862
Topics: Perspectives on 1862
Keywords: Aftermath, Fairness
They were fighting for their lives.
Robert Beussman | Oral History
Theme: 1862
Topics: Causes of War, Assimilation, Perspectives on 1862
Keywords: Hunt, Farming, Conversion, Religion, Honesty, Starvation
The enemy during one war and then the saviors for the next
Robert Beussman | Oral History
Theme: Shared History
Topics: Settler Life
Keywords: Discrimination, Persecution, Prejudice
We still have people that allow others to tell them what to think.
Robert Beussman | Oral History
Theme: 1862
Topics: Ways of Commemorating, Creating Awareness, Media
Keywords: Commemoration, Media
That story was just a story until my aunt took the gun to have it repaired
Robert Beussman | Oral History
Theme: 1862
Topics: Family in 1862
Keywords: Weapons
I didn’t really care to even be seen there.
Dean Blue | Oral History
Theme: 1862
Topics: Fort Snelling
Keywords: Fort Snelling
It happened in this country, too, but you never hear that, never
Dean Blue | Oral History
Theme: Shared History
Topics: Genocide
Keywords: Greed, Lying
We lost every acre, and we weren’t even involved in the war.
Dean Blue | Oral History
Theme: 1862
Topics: Aftermath of 1862, Abraham Lincoln, Punitive Expeditions
Keywords: Bounty, Scalping, Upper Sioux
“If you want to speak to me, speak to me in my language, or your language.”
Dean Blue | Oral History
Theme: Education
Topics: Growing Up, Dakota Language, Dakota in White Systems, School Subjects, Military, Travel
Keywords: English Language, Dakota Language
We Dakotas for some reason, were always drawn back to where we were born and raised; we’re drawn back.
Dean Blue | Oral History
Theme: Connection to Land
Topics: Dakota Land
Keywords: Home
All they could see was Indians fighting whites, and yet at the same time, they didn’t know why
Dean Blue | Oral History
Theme: 1862
Topics: Perspectives on 1862, New Ulm
Keywords: Accuracy, New Ulm
The more they let them in, the more they wanted.
Dean Blue | Oral History
Theme: Shared History
Topics: Treaties, Dakota Land, Repatriation, Minnesota River Valley
Keywords: Homeland, Japan, Germany, Iran
We made a pact, and you’re not paying it.
Dean Blue | Oral History
Theme: 1862
Topics: Treaties, Dakota Land
Keywords: Treaties, Annuity, Acton, Starvation, Land
We never got one red cent from the state or the U.S. Government to start the casinos
Dean Blue | Oral History
Theme: Life Today
Topics: Dakota Life Today, Casinos, U.S. Government
Keywords: Casino, Subsidies
I wish I had a list of all the things that the Dakota initiated
Dean Blue | Oral History
Theme: Cultural Contributions to U.S.
Topics: Dakota Culture and Values
Keywords: Medicine
It’s written by white folks. None if it is ever written by Dakota.
Dean Blue | Oral History
Theme: 1862
Topics: Ways of Commemorating, Perspectives on 1862, Camp Release, Wood Lake
Keywords: Accuracy, Camp Release, Wood Lake
Women within the Dakota society were very highly organized and they were very strong.
Dr. Clifford Canku | Oral History
Theme: Culture and Values
Topics: Dakota Culture and Values, Dakota Social Structure
Keywords: Warrior, Spiritual Leader, Women
Hopefully it would not happen to other people.
Dr. Clifford Canku | Oral History
Theme: 1862
Topics: Perspectives on 1862, Spirituality, Mankato Hangings
Keywords: Men, Superman, Mankato, Hangings
America will never be great unless it does justice to the first Americans on this continent.
Dr. Clifford Canku | Oral History
Theme: Shared History
Topics: Treaties, U.S. Government
Keywords: Treaties, Justice, Property, United Nations
I think we've outgrown those structures of colonial dominance over Native American people.
Dr. Clifford Canku | Oral History
Theme: 1862
Topics: Fort Ridgely, Fort Snelling, Reconciliation, Education for Understanding
Keywords: Fort Ridgely, Concessions, Reconciliation, Colonization, Education
Our roots are still very much deeply embedded in our Dakota way of life.
Dr. Clifford Canku | Oral History
Theme: Life Today
Topics: Dakota Life Today, Lower Sioux Agency, Spirituality, Dakota Identity, Dakota Culture and Values
Keywords: Spirituality, Identity, Roots, Anglo
We just accept – with open heart, open mind, open spirit.
Dr. Clifford Canku | Oral History
Theme: 1862
Topics: Birch Coulee, Little People
Keywords: Little People, Birch Coulee
Biggest thing that happened to us was the Second World War.
Dr. Clifford Canku | Oral History
Theme: Growing Up
Topics: Growing Up, Military
Keywords: Military, WWII
The way I look at it, is that this country is still ours, spiritually, because it is God-given.
Dr. Clifford Canku | Oral History
Theme: Connection to Land
Topics: Dakota Land, Spirits, Creation
Keywords: Land, Spirits, Ghosts, Camp Coldwater, Homeland, Relatives
That Fort is a sham. It's a Fort whose history is shameful.
Dr. Clifford Canku | Oral History
Theme: 1862
Topics: Fort Snelling, Spirits
Keywords: Fort Snelling, Spirits, Relatives
I would compare it to what's happening to the United States
Dr. Clifford Canku | Oral History
Theme: Life Today
Topics: Perspectives on 1862, U.S. Government
Keywords: Afghanistan, Iraq
At the root of everything, factionalism was created when immigrants came to our way of living
Dr. Clifford Canku | Oral History
Theme: 1862
Topics: U.S. Government, Factions, Immigration, Dakota Land
Keywords: Indian Removal Act, Factionalism, Treaties, Policies, Reservations, Immigration, Settlers, Encroachment
I would wish for the best of both worlds for our young people
Dr. Clifford Canku | Oral History
Theme: Hopes for the Future
Topics: Dakota Identity, Youth
Keywords: Skills, Youth
When you go to war, some people disappear
Dr. Clifford Canku | Oral History
Theme: 1862
Topics: Aftermath of 1862, Oral History, Family in 1862, Fort Snelling, Dakota Exile/Diaspora, Dakota Social Structure
Keywords: Injustice, Wakute (Wacouta), Canku, Diaspora, Lake Traverse, Orphans, Relatives, Montana, Canada, Fort Totten, Roles, Warriors, Fugitive
My mother knew we had to survive in the greater society
Michael Childs | Oral History
Theme: Growing Up
Topics: Growing Up, Education, Boarding Schools, Dakota Culture and Values
Keywords: Education, Engineering, Language, Survival, Hunting, Assimilation, Lena Campbell
It was used against us; the generosity was used against us
Michael Childs | Oral History
Theme: Shared History
Topics: Treaties, Dakota Land
Keywords: Treaties, Generosity
They’re just constantly told “you’re worthless.”
Michael Childs | Oral History
Theme: Life Today
Topics: Dakota Life Today, Activism, American Indian Movement, Racism
Keywords: AIM, Opression
Some people understood it was a humanitarian gesture, and others felt that we were betraying the tribe
Michael Childs | Oral History
Theme: 1862
Topics: Family in 1862, Factions
Keywords: John Other Day (Anpetu-Tokeka), Humanitarian
He used the United States treatment of the Native Americans as the model
Michael Childs | Oral History
Theme: Shared History
Topics: Genocide
Keywords: Genocide, Adolph Hitler, Germ Warfare
They should have tried to find a different way.
Evelyn Eischen | Oral History
Theme: 1862
Topics: Perspectives on 1862, Causes of War
Keywords: Cause
“Now, come on! You can do it"
Evelyn Eischen | Oral History
Theme: Growing Up
Topics: Growing Up, Language
Keywords: German, Language
This little boy was laying in the ditch
Evelyn Eischen | Oral History
Theme: 1862
Topics: Aftermath of 1862, Family in 1862
Keywords: Roeser, Holm
I was embarrassed, to tell you the truth
Mary Fellegy | Oral History
Theme: Life Today
Topics: Inter-cultural Relationships
Keywords: Perceptions, Fear
I think children of today are lacking history
Mary Fellegy | Oral History
Theme: 1862
Topics: Ways of Commemorating, Education
Keywords: History, Milford
They sacrificed so we can have what we have today
Sandra Geshick | Oral History
Theme: 1862
Topics: Aftermath of 1862, Family in 1862, Mankato Hangings, Davenport Prison, Crow Creek
Keywords: Mankato, Davenport, Crow Creek, Flandreau, Bloomington, Lower Sioux Community, Sacrifice
Resilience
Sandra Geshick | Oral History
Theme: Shared History
Topics: Survival, Aftermath of 1862, Resilience
Keywords: Survival, Resilience, Protection
Who wouldn’t defend what was theirs?
Sandra Geshick | Oral History
Theme: 1862
Topics: Perspectives on 1862, Dakota Culture and Values, Spirituality
Keywords: Untruth, Defending, Prayer
“Tahicido”
Sandra Geshick | Oral History
Theme: 1862
Topics: Family in 1862, Davenport Prison, Aftermath of 1862
Keywords: Davenport Prison, Family
Fortitude
Sandra Geshick | Oral History
Theme: Growing Up
Topics: Growing Up, Dakota Culture and Values
Keywords: Men, Women, Fortitude
There’s a lesson to be learned in every tragedy
Sandra Geshick | Oral History
Theme: 1862
Topics: Leaders in War, Little Crow, Fortitude
Keywords: Fortitude, Leadership
There are people who will say those people were taken there for safety
George Glotzbach | Oral History
Theme: 1862
Topics: Fort Snelling
Keywords: Fort Snelling, Preservation
We were all glad it was over
George Glotzbach | Oral History
Theme: 1862
Topics: Ways of Commemorating, Inter-cultural Relationships
Keywords: Commemoration, Celebration
We have not learned our lesson yet
George Glotzbach | Oral History
Theme: 1862
Topics: Perspectives on 1862, Current Events
Keywords: War, Humanity, Afghanistan, Iraq, Somalia
Inhumanity of man against man is hard to believe
George Glotzbach | Oral History
Theme: 1862
Topics: Aftermath of 1862, Forced Marches
Keywords: Violence
“Hey it’s over now, why don’t we just make friends.”
George Glotzbach | Oral History
Theme: Life Today
Topics: Settler Descendant Life Today, Inter-cultural Relationships
Keywords: Events, WPA, New Ulm
They had a cause against the federal government
George Glotzbach | Oral History
Theme: 1862
Topics: Perspectives on 1862, Current Events, U.S. Government
Keywords: Point of View, Attack, Victims
Our people fought terrorism for a long time
Pamela Halverson | Oral History
Theme: Shared History
Topics: Dakota Land, U.S. Government, Homestead Act
Keywords: Homeland, Medicine, Land Loss
I’d wish to be the people we were
Pamela Halverson | Oral History
Theme: Culture and Values
Topics: Dakota Culture and Values
Keywords: History
Our ancestors fought for survival
Pamela Halverson | Oral History
Theme: 1862
Topics: Causes of War, Survival, Perspectives on 1862
Keywords: Survival
Those grandmas, they were real no-nonsense.
Pamela Halverson | Oral History
Theme: Growing Up
Topics: Growing Up, Boarding School, Education, Dakota Culture and Values, Discrimination
Keywords: Boarding School, School
Our camp was Kaposia
Pamela Halverson | Oral History
Theme: Shared History
Topics: Treaties, Reservations, Genocide, U.S. Government
Keywords: Homeland, Reservations, Lower Sioux Community, Dakota and U.S. Gov't
We commemorate them every day.
Pamela Halverson | Oral History
Theme: 1862
Topics: Ways of Commemorating, Mankato Hangings, Education for Understanding
Keywords: Honor, History, Education, Commemoration
You can feel the coldness in there
Pamela Halverson | Oral History
Theme: 1862
Topics: Lower Sioux Agency, U.S. Government, Spirituality
Keywords: Lower Sioux Community, Annuity
"The land of milk and honey"
Alice Henle | Oral History
Theme: Immigration
Topics: Immigration Experience, German Land Association, Homestead Act
Keywords: Sienks, Henle, Homestead Act
You can see why this all happened
Alice Henle | Oral History
Theme: 1862
Topics: Upper Sioux Agency
Keywords: Upper Sioux Agency
She cut a lock of his hair and kept it.
Alice Henle | Oral History
Theme: 1862
Topics: Family in 1862
Keywords: Hartman, Riel, Roner, Henle
It was a clash of two cultures. It had to be.
Frederick Juni | Oral History
Theme: 1862
Topics: Dakota and Settler Relationships, Factions, Causes of War
Keywords: Cause, Factions, Neighbors, Compassion
The reservation line goes through our land
Frederick Juni | Oral History
Theme: Shared History
Topics: Dakota and Settler Relationships, Reservations
Keywords: Reservations
I don't think that silence does much
Frederick Juni | Oral History
Theme: 1862
Topics: Ways of Commemorating, Brown County
Keywords: Commemoration, Anniversary, Celebration, Animosity
We surely have to keep history alive
Frederick Juni | Oral History
Theme: 1862
Topics: Family in 1862, Morton
Keywords: Morton, Frank Massopust
I think it's a blemish on our local history
Frederick Juni | Oral History
Theme: 1862
Topics: Aftermath of 1862, Mankato Hangings, Abraham Lincoln
Keywords: Mankato, Hangings, Lincoln
We have the deed for this farm on the wall signed by Ulysses S. Grant
Frederick Juni | Oral History
Theme: Immigration
Topics: Settler Life, New Ulm, Homesteading, Sod Houses
Keywords: New Ulm, Massopust, Homestead, Sod Houses, Dugout
Humanity has still not learned to coexist in harmony
Frederick Juni | Oral History
Theme: 1862
Topics: Perspectives on 1862
Keywords: Humanity
I wish that I could have a home on the reservation as well as my kids and grandchildren
Donna Korstad | Oral History
Theme: Hopes for the Future
Topics: Reservations
Keywords: Reservations
The things that we did have, we appreciated them
Donna Korstad | Oral History
Theme: Growing Up
Topics: Growing Up, Play, Holidays
Keywords: Play, Holidays, Money
The notion is that if you're Christian you can't be an Indian
John LaBatte | Oral History
Theme: Life Today
Topics: Spirituality
Keywords: Christianity
I believe in understanding on both sides
John LaBatte | Oral History
Theme: 1862
Topics: Perspectives on 1862, Leaders in War, Mankato Hangings, Oral History, Marches
Keywords: Ramsey, Guilt, Marches, Soldiers
Two of my grandfathers were sentenced to hang at Mankato
John LaBatte | Oral History
Theme: 1862
Topics: Family in 1862, Aftermath of 1862
Keywords: Christianity, Davenport Prison, Faribault, Henry Whipple, Mankato
Where did the Dakota Indian get their land?
John LaBatte | Oral History
Theme: Shared History
Topics: Treaties, Dakota Land, Trade
Keywords: Treaties, Trade, Migration
Take the politics out of it and deal with it from a historical aspect
John LaBatte | Oral History
Theme: 1862
Topics: Understanding, Education, Forced Marches, Fort Snelling
Keywords: Education, Genocide, Marches, Anger, Fort Snelling
Some people call it a clash of cultures. I don't, that's too general
John LaBatte | Oral History
Theme: Shared History
Topics: Dakota and Settler Relationships
Keywords: Fur Traders, Missionaries, Treaties
Do you think they would have stopped to have trials?
John LaBatte | Oral History
Theme: 1862
Topics: Aftermath of 1862, Dakota Exile/Diaspora, Mankato Hangings, Abraham Lincoln, Forced Marches
Keywords: Dakota Exile/Diaspora, Mankato, Hangings, Lincoln, March
They're still fighting the Dakota War among themselves
John LaBatte | Oral History
Theme: 1862
Topics: Ways of Commemorating
Keywords: Minnesota Historical Society
I believe that Little Crow was a reluctant leader
John LaBatte | Oral History
Theme: 1862
Topics: Leaders in War, Little Crow, Gabriel Renville, Aftermath of 1862
Keywords: Little Crow (Thaóyate Dúta), Gabriel Renville
Education needs to tell the truth about what happened
John LaBatte | Oral History
Theme: 1862
Topics: Family in 1862
Keywords: LaBatte, Quinn, Hapstina
I see errors in Minnesota Historical Society's signs and books
John LaBatte | Oral History
Theme: Shared History
Topics: Forced Conversion, Missionaries, Lower Sioux Agency
Keywords: Missionaries, Christianity
That whole process is very complicated
John LaBatte | Oral History
Theme: 1862
Topics: Perspectives on 1862, Factions, Missionaries, Christianity, Fur Trade, Dakota and Settler Relationships
Keywords: Myrick, LaBatte, Intermarriage, Kinship, Starvation, Lac qui Parle, Acton, Conversion, Big Eagle (Waŋbdí Tháŋka)
Everything that God created is a relative of ours
Walter LaBatte | Oral History
Theme: Culture and Values
Topics: Dakota Culture and Values
Keywords: Food, Philosophy
Sometimes getting rid of things doesn’t have the effect that you want
Walter LaBatte | Oral History
Theme: 1862
Topics: Fort Snelling
Keywords: Fort Snelling
You know, you get a certain job and it fits like a glove
Walter LaBatte | Oral History
Theme: Life Today
Topics: Dakota Life Today, Jobs
Keywords: Jobs
“God was talking to us. God was talking to us.”
Walter LaBatte | Oral History
Theme: Growing Up
Topics: Growing Up
Keywords: Spirituality
The war doesn’t sound like it was very well planned out.
Walter LaBatte | Oral History
Theme: 1862
Topics: Perspectives on 1862
Keywords: Gabriel Renville, Factionalism
“Makte sni , makte sni, damakota do, damakota do.”
Walter LaBatte | Oral History
Theme: 1862
Topics: Family in 1862, Dakota Exile/Diaspora, Camp Release
Keywords: Camp Release, Marches, Treaties, Trials, March
The way it was written, the government never intended to pay us the full amount
Walter LaBatte | Oral History
Theme: Shared History
Topics: Treaties, U.S. Government
Keywords: Consequences
I can’t understand why they’re mad
Walter LaBatte | Oral History
Theme: Life Today
Topics: Dakota and Settler Relationships, Dakota Land
Keywords: Trust, Land Loss, Germans, French, Traders, Attitudes
Who you are is something nobody can take away from you
Dr. Elden Lawrence | Oral History
Theme: Life Today
Topics: Dakota Life Today, Dakota Identity
Keywords: Warrior, Military, Honor
Lorenzo Lawrence (Towanetaton)
Dr. Elden Lawrence | Oral History
Theme: 1862
Topics: Family in 1862, Lorenzo Lawrence (Towanetaton)
Keywords: Dakota Spirituality, Christianity, Military, Warrior
You don’t give up.
Dr. Elden Lawrence | Oral History
Theme: Education
Topics: Education
Keywords: School
Two ways of life were clashing
Dr. Elden Lawrence | Oral History
Theme: 1862
Topics: Causes of War, Factions
Keywords: Dakota Factions, Warrior, Christianity
Milford Monument
Dr. Elden Lawrence | Oral History
Theme: 1862
Topics: Ways of Commemorating
Keywords: Milford
"We’re going to drive you all the way to the Rocky Mountains"
Dr. Elden Lawrence | Oral History
Theme: Shared History
Topics: Treaties, Dakota Social Structure, U.S. Government, Dakota Land
Keywords: Treaties, Dakota and U.S. Gov't, Land
The depth of the water is 3.8 feet
Dr. Elden Lawrence | Oral History
Theme: 1862
Topics: Aftermath of 1862, Mankato Hangings
Keywords: Hangings
Common ground
Dr. Elden Lawrence | Oral History
Theme: Life Today
Topics: Inter-cultural Relationships
Keywords: Education, Religion
It would serve as a memorial to the people that were there
Dr. Elden Lawrence | Oral History
Theme: 1862
Topics: Aftermath of 1862, Fort Snelling, Mankato Hangings
Keywords: Fort Snelling, Hangings
If I don’t break down some barriers, if I don’t tread some new paths...
Dr. Elden Lawrence | Oral History
Theme: Growing Up
Topics: Growing Up, Dakota in White Systems, Education, Spirituality, Military, Dakota Language
Keywords: History, Prejudice, School, Military, Christianity, Ancestors, Language
They got some recompense, I guess
Dr. Elden Lawrence | Oral History
Theme: 1862
Topics: Aftermath of 1862
Keywords: Dakota Factions, Lincoln, Hangings, Warrior, Christianity
Family roles were very structured and followed very closely
Dr. Elden Lawrence | Oral History
Theme: Dakota History
Topics: Dakota Social Structure
Keywords: History, Roles
The ideal American doesn’t really exist; he’s a myth
Dr. Elden Lawrence | Oral History
Theme: Shared History
Topics: U.S. Government, Assimilation, Dawes Act, American Indian Policy
Keywords: Dakota and U.S. Gov't, Assimilation, Dawes Act, American Indian Policy
“You guys can’t be in here; I own all the air in here”
Dr. Elden Lawrence | Oral History
Theme: Shared History
Topics: Dakota Land, Treaties, Immigration, U.S. Government
Keywords: Land, Settlers, Treaties, Encroachment, Dakota and U.S. Gov't
“I’ll die with you. Because I’m not a coward.”
Dr. Elden Lawrence | Oral History
Theme: 1862
Topics: Causes of War, Little Crow
Keywords: Little Crow (Thaóyate Dúta)
He told them that there was trouble coming
Orlin Mack | Oral History
Theme: 1862
Topics: Family in 1862
Keywords: Dakota/Settler Relations
That Norwegian suggested that they look at the New Ulm site for starting a town
Orlin Mack | Oral History
Theme: Immigration
Topics: Immigration Experience
Keywords: German Land Association, Norwegian, Language
I don't think they got a very fair deal
Willard Manderfeld | Oral History
Theme: Shared History
Topics: Treaties
Keywords: Treaties, Land
Close to a hundred miles
Willard Manderfeld | Oral History
Theme: 1862
Topics: Causes of War, Family in War, Aftermath of War, Treaties, Perspectives on War
Keywords: Family, Fort Ridgely
They lived here that long so they got the land free
Willard Manderfeld | Oral History
Theme: Immigration
Topics: Homesteading, Immigration Experience, U.S. Government
Keywords: Homesteading, Immigration
They had to teach us English first
Willard Manderfeld | Oral History
Theme: Growing Up
Topics: Growing Up, Settler Life, Language, German
Keywords: German, Language
The only holiday we really celebrated was Christmas
Ruby Minkel | Oral History
Theme: Growing Up
Topics: Growing Up
Keywords: Holidays
It’s hard to explain the feeling
Ruby Minkel | Oral History
Theme: Life Today
Topics: Dakota Life Today, Spirituality
Keywords: Spirituality
They had a bent sense of purpose
Raymond Owen | Oral History
Theme: 1862
Topics: Fort Snelling, Ways of Commemorating, Genocide
Keywords: Fort Snelling
Even today, you live in the United States of Dakota
Raymond Owen | Oral History
Theme: Shared History
Topics: Dakota Land, Treaties
Keywords: Treaties, Pike Treaty
In order to go forward, we had to go back to our old ways
Raymond Owen | Oral History
Theme: Life Today
Topics: Spirituality, Dakota Life Today, Inter-Tribal Relationships
Keywords: Bureau of Indian Affairs, BIA, Ojibwe (Anishinaabe, Chippewa), Christianity
They would never talk in front of us kids in our Dakota language
Joan Pendleton | Oral History
Theme: Growing Up
Topics: Growing Up, Language, Spirituality
Keywords: Hoop Dance, Christianity, Dakota Language, School
I would never treat someone like that, no matter what nationality they were
Joan Pendleton | Oral History
Theme: 1862
Topics: Perspectives on 1862
Keywords: Forgiveness
Unity
Joan Pendleton | Oral History
Theme: Hopes for the Future
Topics: Dakota Hopes for the Future
Keywords: Unity, Time
We just didn’t like it there
Joan Pendleton | Oral History
Theme: Growing Up
Topics: Education, Boarding Schools, Jobs
Keywords: Flandreau, Boarding School, School
You can’t be around old Dakotas without learning about the spirituality of things.
Dallas Ross | Oral History
Theme: Growing Up
Topics: Growing Up, Dakota Culture and Values, Spirituality, Storytelling, Christianity
Keywords: Culture, Values, Storytelling, Dakota Spirituality, Christianity
The gate opened just to show the people that the land was still there.
Dallas Ross | Oral History
Theme: 1862
Topics: Aftermath of 1862, Fort Snelling
Keywords: Fort Snelling, Spirituality
Akicita
Dallas Ross | Oral History
Theme: 1862
Topics: Wood Lake, Dakota Social Structure
Keywords: Wood Lake, Warrior, Akicita
Unless you have something better to offer, then you cannot judge people
Dallas Ross | Oral History
Theme: 1862
Topics: Fort Snelling
Keywords: Desecration
A lifetime of learning for a minute of understanding.
Dallas Ross | Oral History
Theme: 1862
Topics: Fort Ridgely, Spirituality
Keywords: Spirit
Dakota is a way of life, a manner in which you walk through this world
Dallas Ross | Oral History
Theme: Life Today
Topics: Dakota Life Today, Dakota Identity
Keywords: Identity
It’s probably one of the saddest places in this local area.
Dallas Ross | Oral History
Theme: 1862
Topics: Birch Coulee
Keywords: Spirits
They don’t see colors in people; they just see people in people
Dallas Ross | Oral History
Theme: Education
Topics: Dakota in White Systems, Education, Racism
Keywords: Discrimination, School
A place where a spirit used to be but the spirit is gone
Dallas Ross | Oral History
Theme: Connection to Land
Topics: Dakota Land
Keywords: Camp Coldwater
They are looking there and they don’t really truly understand what happened.
Dallas Ross | Oral History
Theme: 1862
Topics: Mankato, Mankato Hangings
Keywords: Land, Mankato
“We did this in a manner that was good. Why is this happening to us?"
Dallas Ross | Oral History
Theme: Shared History
Topics: Treaties, Spirituality, Fort Snelling
Keywords: Fort Snelling, Savage
Even in my family there were differences.
Dallas Ross | Oral History
Theme: 1862
Topics: Family in 1862, Factions, Camp Release
Keywords: Dakota Factions, Red Iron (Ma-za-sa)
Where do you start, and how far back do you go?
Richard Runck | Oral History
Theme: 1862
Topics: Perspectives on 1862
Keywords:
Let sleeping dogs lie
Richard Runck | Oral History
Theme: 1862
Topics: Ways of Commemorating, Learning from the Past
Keywords: WWII, Accuracy
What they taught there had nothing to do with our tribes
Carrie Schommer | Oral History
Theme: Education
Topics: Boarding Schools
Keywords: Boarding School, Flandreau
Mazamani (Iron Walker)
Carrie Schommer | Oral History
Theme: 1862
Topics: Family in 1862, Marches
Keywords: Fort Ridgely, Fort Snelling, Tiospaye
I can still picture that area where my two aunties were dropped off at the road
Carrie Schommer | Oral History
Theme: Growing Up
Topics: Growing Up, Identity, Racism
Keywords: Storytelling
There were about five of us that started school in Granite Falls with not a word of English
Carrie Schommer | Oral History
Theme: Education
Topics: Dakota in White Systems
Keywords: Kindergarten, School
When you go there you feel all of the things that have happened there
Carrie Schommer | Oral History
Theme: 1862
Topics: Fort Snelling
Keywords: Fort Snelling, Commemoration
What I knew was the truth
Carrie Schommer | Oral History
Theme: Education
Topics: Oral History
Keywords: Dakota in White Systems
I was always interested in what a dugout was like
Sylvan Schumacher | Oral History
Theme: Immigration
Topics: Settler Life, Homesteading, Sod Houses
Keywords: Homesteading, Sod Houses, Midwifery
He couldn’t let the dog bark, so he had to drown his dog
Sylvan Schumacher | Oral History
Theme: 1862
Topics: Family in 1862
Keywords: Slough, Leavenworth
War is always that way
Sylvan Schumacher | Oral History
Theme: 1862
Topics: Perspectives on 1862
Keywords: War
Everyone else left the area
Sylvan Schumacher | Oral History
Theme: 1862
Topics: Aftermath of 1862, Family in 1862
Keywords: Leavenworth, Wounded Knee
If we can learn what not to do, there’s some good to come from it.
Terry Sveine | Oral History
Theme: 1862
Topics: Education, Teaching 1862, Learning from the Past, Ways of Commemorating
Keywords: Learning from the Past
They came over from Luxembourg
Terry Sveine | Oral History
Theme: Immigration
Topics: Settler Life, Dakota and Settler Relationships
Keywords: Immigration
“We were told that would be better than capture.”
Terry Sveine | Oral History
Theme: 1862
Topics: Family in 1862
Keywords:
If everything was taken away from me, I probably would have done the same thing
Terry Sveine | Oral History
Theme: 1862
Topics: Perspectives on 1862
Keywords:
I’ve been told that maybe if I was not on the so-called “winning side”, I might have a different view
Terry Sveine | Oral History
Theme: Life Today
Topics: Settler Descendant Life Today, Inter-cultural Relationships, Reconciliation
Keywords: Reconciliation
I thought: this deserves way more than that
Terry Sveine | Oral History
Theme: 1862
Topics: Mankato
Keywords: Mankato, Reconciliation
That’s how they would hide.
LaVonne Swenson | Oral History
Theme: 1862
Topics: Family in 1862, Aftermath of 1862
Keywords: Bounty
That was their last song
LaVonne Swenson | Oral History
Theme: 1862
Topics: Aftermath of 1862, Mankato Hangings
Keywords: Mankato, Hangings
50,000 Indian children never came home
LaVonne Swenson | Oral History
Theme: Life Today
Topics: Boarding School, Reparations, Healing
Keywords: Canada, Boarding School
We always talk about our teacher and memories of the school and the games we played.
LaVonne Swenson | Oral History
Theme: Growing Up
Topics: Growing Up, Education, Dakota in White Systems
Keywords: School
I think the biggest contribution was our lifestyle
LaVonne Swenson | Oral History
Theme: Cultural Contributions to U.S.
Topics: Dakota Culture and Values
Keywords: Food, Lifestyle
We’re no different. It’s just that we probably had to suffer a whole lot more.
LaVonne Swenson | Oral History
Theme: Education
Topics: Education for Understanding
Keywords: Suffer, Education
You get a sense of belonging to that part of history and surviving
LaVonne Swenson | Oral History
Theme: 1862
Topics: Birch Coulee
Keywords: Birch Coulee
They’ve held onto their traditions
LaVonne Swenson | Oral History
Theme: Life Today
Topics: Dakota Life Today, Dakota Culture and Values
Keywords: Canada
They were punished for speaking it and they didn’t want us to be punished.
LaVonne Swenson | Oral History
Theme: Growing Up
Topics: Dakota Language
Keywords:
Joseph and his family had close connections with the Indian community
Jerry Weldy | Oral History
Theme: 1862
Topics: Family in 1862, Dakota and Settler Relationships
Keywords: Treaty
Some of the mixed blood people had to look out for themselves
Jerry Weldy | Oral History
Theme: 1862
Topics: Family in 1862, Fort Ridgely, Factions
Keywords: Fort Ridgely
The big move was on.
Lorraine Wels | Oral History
Theme: Immigration
Topics: Immigration Experience
Keywords: Steamboat
“Grandma Koehler’s house was burned to the ground..."
Lorraine Wels | Oral History
Theme: 1862
Topics: Family in 1862, Dakota and Settler Relationships
Keywords: Steamboat, New Ulm, Settlers
Who said once, “Treaties are made to be broken.” Well, I guess they were right
Byron White | Oral History
Theme: Shared History
Topics: Treaties
Keywords: Treaties
They all stuck together no matter what.
Byron White | Oral History
Theme: Culture and Values
Topics: Dakota Culture and Values, Growing Up
Keywords: Helping Others
“Let them eat grass.”
Byron White | Oral History
Theme: 1862
Topics: Perspectives on 1862, U.S. Government
Keywords: Dakota and U.S. Gov't
The lessons that they told almost made you ashamed to be Indian
Byron White | Oral History
Theme: Growing Up
Topics: Growing Up, Dakota in White Systems, Education
Keywords: School, Savage, History
Humanity sometimes is cruel.
Byron White | Oral History
Theme: 1862
Topics: Fort Snelling
Keywords: Fort Snelling
In ten years I had the director position and I’ve been here since
Deborah White | Oral History
Theme: Life Today
Topics: Dakota Life Today, Dakota and Settler Relationships
Keywords: Gaming Commission
They wanted to come home
Lillian Wilson | Oral History
Theme: 1862
Topics: Ways of Commemorating, Commemorative March, Spirituality
Keywords: Birch Coulee
They used to have love, honor and respect for each other.
Lillian Wilson | Oral History
Theme: Hopes for the Future
Topics: Dakota Culture and Values
Keywords:
I don’t think it was hard; it was kind of like an adventure.
Lillian Wilson | Oral History
Theme: Education
Topics: Boarding Schools, Dakota Culture and Values, Assimilation
Keywords:
The United States is suffering because they made so many mistakes
Lillian Wilson | Oral History
Theme: Life Today
Topics: U.S. Government
Keywords:
It was like two different worlds, going to school, then coming back and being with all our little friends.
Lillian Wilson | Oral History
Theme: Growing Up
Topics: Growing Up, Education, Dakota in White Systems, Ceremonies, Spirits
Keywords: School
There were so many Dakotas killed, unrecorded.
Albert Taylor | Oral History
Theme: 1862
Topics: Perspectives on 1862, Genocide, History
Keywords: Lincoln, Germ Warfare
That's how much damage they did to me.
Albert Taylor | Oral History
Theme: Shared History
Topics: Current Events, Dakota in White Systems, Growing Up Dakota, Boarding School
Keywords: Boarding School
It’s a beautiful song that they were singing
Albert Taylor | Oral History
Theme: 1862
Topics: Mankato, Perspectives on War
Keywords: Mankato Hanging
You gotta gargle and then you gotta drink that to clean
Albert Taylor | Oral History
Theme: Growing Up
Topics: Growing Up Dakota, Boarding Schools, Language
Keywords: Boarding School, Language
We’re just fighting for survival in Canada
Bruce Braden Pashe | Oral History
Theme: 1862
Topics: Aftermath of War, Dakota Hopes for the Future
Keywords: Dakota Exile/Diaspora
A good relationship with both peoples
Carol Merrick | Oral History
Theme: Life Today
Topics: Dakota Life Today, Inter-cultural Relationships
Keywords: Honors, Work
He was born on the way into Canada
Carol Merrick | Oral History
Theme: 1862
Topics: Aftermath of War
Keywords: Dakota Exile/Diaspora
I would wish that we could all live together in a good way
Carol Merrick | Oral History
Theme: Hopes for the Future
Topics: Dakota Hopes for the Future
Keywords: Family
Isan tanka
Clayton Maxwell Smoke | Oral History
Theme: 1862
Topics: Aftermath of War, Dakota Exile/Diaspora, Punitive Expeditions
Keywords: Exile, Diaspora, Punitive Expeditions
They used to call me a refugee all the time
David Pashe | Oral History
Theme: 1862
Topics: Aftermath of War, Dakota History, Dakota Exile/Diaspora, Family in War, Repatriation
Keywords: Exile, Diaspora, Inkpaduta, Andrew Myrick, Repatriation
"You’re supposed to be helping us- not them"
David Pashe | Oral History
Theme: 1862
Topics: Perspectives on War, Causes of War, Inter-cultural Relationships
Keywords: Farming, Indian Agent, Assimilation
I hadn't realized I was an Indian
David Pashe | Oral History
Theme: Growing Up
Topics: Growing Up, Family, Dakota History, Dakota Language and Culture, Spirituality, Christianity
Keywords: Family, History, Spirituality, Christianity
“Elsie’s one of these people you meet once and you never forget.”
Elsie Noel | Oral History
Theme: Life Today
Topics: Jobs
Keywords: Jobs
We had signs on every door that said "Speak English"
Elsie Noel | Oral History
Theme: Growing Up
Topics: Growing Up, Family, Boarding School, Dakota Culture and Values
Keywords: School, Mounties, Language, Medicine
The chief sent all the young ladies up to Canada
James Assiniboine | Oral History
Theme: 1862
Topics: Aftermath of War, Family in War, Dakota Exile/Diaspora
Keywords: Family, Dakota Exile/Diaspora
Sacrifice
Leslie Smoke | Oral History
Theme: Life Today
Topics: Spirituality, Christianity, Dakota Culture and Values
Keywords: Christianity
There was something more to it
Leslie Smoke | Oral History
Theme: Growing Up
Topics: Growing Up, Boarding School, Dakota Culture and Values
Keywords: School, Culture, Work
Why not get along together with your neighbor?
Leslie Smoke | Oral History
Theme: 1862
Topics: Ways of Commemorating, Divisions, Anger, Inter-cultural Relationships
Keywords: Divisions, Anger
You feel right at home, just like you’ve known them for years
Marina James | Oral History
Theme: Life Today
Topics: Dakota Life Today, Homeland
Keywords: Home, Diaspora
She knew all the different roots
Marina James | Oral History
Theme: Growing Up
Topics: Family, Dakota Culture and Values
Keywords: Spirituality, Medicine
Trying to hide from the Americans
Marina James | Oral History
Theme: 1862
Topics: Family in War, Aftermath of War, Dakota Exile/Diaspora
Keywords: Family, Exile, Diaspora
We learned how to skate and slide down the hill
Marina James | Oral History
Theme: Growing Up
Topics: Growing Up, Family, Work
Keywords: Work, Medicine
“Don’t ever forget who you are.”
| Oral History
Theme: 1862
Topics: Perspective on War
Keywords: U.S Government, Change
We had to work to do it
| Oral History
Theme: Growing Up
Topics: Growing Up, Family, Education
Keywords: Oral History, Education, History, Survival
Are we doing the right thing?
| Oral History
Theme: 1862
Topics: Family in War, Aftermath of War, Little Crow, Dakota History
Keywords: Family, Little Crow, Horses
It’s their story and sooner or later, we’re going to be included
Melvin Longclaws | Oral History
Theme: Hopes for the Future
Topics: Dakota Hopes for the Future, Dakota Contributions to North America
Keywords: U.S Government, Commemoration
People have to know it or else we forget
Melvin Longclaws | Oral History
Theme: 1862
Topics: Perspectives on War, Shared History, Manifest Destiny
Keywords: Land, U.S. Government, Genocide, Germ Warfare
Identity
Randolph Pashe | Oral History
Theme: Hopes for the Future
Topics: Dakota Hopes for the Future
Keywords: Identity
It's for the people
Trudy Pashe | Oral History
Theme: Dakota History
Topics: Dakota Identity, History
Keywords: History, Understanding, Healing
Pazoiyopa
Trudy Pashe | Oral History
Theme: 1862
Topics: Family in War, Ways of Commemorating
Keywords: Family, Pazoiyopa (Runs Against Something When Crawling)
I hope it happens in my children's lifetime
Trudy Pashe | Oral History
Theme: Hopes for the Future
Topics: Dakota Hopes for the Future
Keywords: Peace, Family
Are we doing the right thing?
Melvin Littlecrow | Oral History
Theme: 1862
Topics: Perspectives on 1862, Family in 1862, Little Crow
Keywords: Family, Little Crow
No, not in school, we weren’t taught history or culture.
Melvin Littlecrow | Oral History
Theme: Growing Up
Topics: Growing Up Dakota
Keywords: Oral History, Education
One time I asked him why he didn’t teach us to speak the language.
Beverly Wakeman | Oral History
Theme: Growing Up
Topics: Growing Up Dakota
Keywords: Dakota Language, WWII, Christianity
There was not any marking to show where this was
Beverly Wakeman | Oral History
Theme: 1862
Topics: Mankato Hangings
Keywords: Mankato, Commemoration
I still remember some of them
Myron Taylor | Oral History
Theme: Growing Up
Topics: Growing Up Dakota
Keywords: Education, Family, Medicine, Military, Language, Christianity
These people, those people, our relatives, were fighting for the same thing.
Myron Taylor | Oral History
Theme: 1862
Topics: Perspectives on 1862, Aftermath of 1862, Family in 1862, Ways of Commemorating
Keywords: Discrimination, Education, School, Land, History, Christianity, Family, Mankato Hanging
They made a falsehood out of the whole thing
Myron Taylor | Oral History
Theme: Shared History
Topics: Treaties, U.S. Government
Keywords: Treaties, U.S. Government
It’s not good to dwell on but still it’s there, it’s there
Ed LaBelle | Oral History
Theme: Life Today
Topics: Dakota Life Today, Dakota Hopes for the Future
Keywords: undefined
Collateral Damage
Ed LaBelle | Oral History
Theme: Shared History
Topics: Perspectives on 1862, U.S. Government
Keywords: Henry Sibley, Alexander Ramsey
The child believed, "who died?"
Ed LaBelle | Oral History
Theme: Growing Up
Topics: Growing Up Dakota, Dakota Culture and Values, Dakota Language, Boarding School, Christianity, Jobs
Keywords: Language, School, Spirituality, Christianity
Many contributions
Ed LaBelle | Oral History
Theme: Cultural Contributions to U.S.
Topics: Dakota Contributions to North America
Keywords: Medicine, Food, U.S Government
It was the worst thing that could have happened to the Dakotas in Minnesota
Ed LaBelle | Oral History
Theme: Shared History
Topics: Treaties, U.S. Government
Keywords: Treaties, Alexander Ramsey
They want us to forgive and we do forgive to a certain extent but we don’t forget.
Ed LaBelle | Oral History
Theme: 1862
Topics: Family in 1862, Aftermath of 1862
Keywords: Family, Aftermath
I found the birch trees and I knew that was home
William Beane | Oral History
Theme: Growing Up
Topics: Growing Up Dakota, Family in 1862, Language, Perspectives on 1862, Ways of Commemorating
Keywords: Family, Language, Commemoration, Traders, Military, Fort Snelling
In the end they got very little money.
William Beane | Oral History
Theme: Shared History
Topics: Treaties
Keywords: Treaties

Viewpoints: All viewpoints expressed on this website are those of the contributors, and are not representative of the Minnesota Historical Society.